1’5 anhydroglucitol (glycaemic control)
hsCRP (systemic inflammation)
HDL/LDL (Lipid levels)
Homocysteine (marker of folate, B6 and B12 deficiency)
Omega 3 index (marker of optimum omega 3 intake)
The greatest risk factor for cardiovascular disease is excess weight. Obese individuals can develop impaired glucose tolerance leading to advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGE is thought to increase the activation of the inflammatory process and formation of atherosclerosis. The test 1’5 anhydroglucitol is a marker of glucose variability as seen in impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes.
A high-fat diet and a perturbed circulating lipid content has been linked with many diseases. We test not only lipids, but the apolipoprotein attached to the HDL and LDL particles. The ApoA1/APOB ratio has been shown to be a better indicator of cardiovascular disease risk than just the HDL/LDL ratio.
Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with an increase risk for many disorders, including vascular and neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders, birth defects, diabetes, renal disease, osteoporosis, neuropsychiatric disorders, and cancer. Elevated homocysteine could indicate folate, B6 and B12 deficiency. Polymorphisms in the methyltetrahydrofolate reductase gene have been linked with a mildly increased risk for this condition.
Urate levels have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease independent of other risk factors. Although the mechanism for this is still unclear, there is some evidence to suggest high urate levels may affect endothelial function.
Individuals with low omega 3 levels have a 10X risk of sudden cardiac death.
Dietary and exercise inventions have been the mainstay of reducing cardiovascular risk. Low glycaemic index diets and protocols that improve post-prandial glucose will be reflected in the 1’5 anhydroglucitol levels within 3 weeks of treatment. Other markers will take 2-3 months to change. Supplementation with Folate or methyltetrahydrofolate, B6 and B12 have been used to lower homocysteine but evidence for improvements in cardiovascular risk is lacking. There is some evidence to suggest that treatments aimed at reducing serum urate have an effect on cardiovascular risk in people with gout. Further studies are needed. Omega 3 supplementation will raise the Omega 3 index and lower risk of cardiovascular disease.
Repeat testing of the entire panel is recommended every 2-3 months.